DISCLOSURE COMMENTS

Ruby and Sapphire Disclosure Comments (Update 2023)

- No indications of heating.

  No heat enhancement has been detected in this gem.


- Indications of heating.

  Enhanced by heat with no residues detected.


Indications of heating with residues detected may be classified as code H1, H2, H3 or H4, depending on the amount of residues detected (Also known as “Pao kao” in the trade).

**Residues include borax and glass-like material without lead glass

- Indications of heating (H1).

  Enhanced by heat and indication of very small amount of residues are present in fissures and/or cavities. (Insignificant)

 
- Indications of heating (H2).   

  Enhanced by heat and indication of small amount of residues are present in fissures and/or cavities. (Minor)


- Indications of heating (H3).

  Enhanced by heat and indication of moderate amount of residues are present in fissures and/or cavities. (Moderate)


- Indications of heating (H4).

  Enhanced by heat and indication of significant amount of residues are present in fissures and/or cavities. (Significant)


- Indications of heating (PHT)

  Enhanced by pressure and high temperature heat treatment.

 
- Indications of heating with light elements.     

  Enhanced by heat with light elements (such as beryllium).

 
- Indications of heating (lead glass filling).     

  Enhanced by heat. Fissures are filled with lead glass filler. (Also known as “Pao Mai” in the trade)

 
- Indications of heating (cobalt + lead glass filling).     

  Enhanced by heat. Fissures are filled with cobalt-colored lead glass filler. (Also known as “Pao Mai” in the trade)

 
- Indications of surface diffusion treatment.     

  Enhanced by heat and the diffusion of chemical elements from an external source (such as titanium).  The color is concentrated in a thin layer at the surface.


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